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Communication Skills Class 10 Notes
What is Communication ?
Communication is the process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, or feelings between individuals or groups using various methods and mediums. This exchange of thoughts or information to convey different messages by using the verbal, written or
non-verbal medium is known as Communication. It is a fundamental aspect of human interaction and plays a crucial role in conveying messages, sharing knowledge, expressing emotions, and building relationships.
Importance of Communication
Your ability to communicate clearly and share thoughts, feelings and ideas will help you in all your relations with other people. As a student, you may study any language, but it is important that you are able to read, write, speak and listen well in order to communicate properly. Speaking more than one language can help you to communicate well with people around the world. Learning English can help you to communicate with people who understand English besides the language you have been exposed to in your family, for example, your mother tongue.
Communication skills are needed to
- Inform – for example, communicating the time of a meeting.
- Influence – for example, negotiating with a shopkeeper to reduce the price.
- Express feelings – for example, to say or show that you are excited about your success or about a given task.
Types of Communication
Communication is mainly of three types i.e. Verbal, Non-verbal, and Written communication.
1. Verbal Communication :
Verbal or oral communication is defined as the information between the sender and audience
through different verbal mediums like speech or words, presentation, discussion or conversation, etc.
The sender expresses his/her thoughts by speaking words. In verbal communication, there is an
important role of body language and voice tone in how communication is being perceived.
|Type of Verbal Communication||Examples|
|Oral or Spoken Communication: Communication which involves talking||Face-to-face conversation: When you can see the listener. For example, group discussion, talking to family members at home, public speeches, etc.|
|Talking on a phone: This is for personal and official communication. Phone conversations should begin with a greeting (Hello), talking and listening to each other. The conversation can end with a ‘Thank you’ and ‘Bye’.|
|Classroom teaching, business meeting and public speeches are other examples of oral communication, where one person talks to many others at once.|
|Written Communication: Communication which involves written or typed words||Writing on paper: letters, notes, etc.|
|SMS (Short Message Service): These can be sent through a phone to a person or a group.|
|Using email to share news, thoughts, documents and files (including photos, videos, music, etc.). e-mail can be used to send messages to a person or to a group.|
|Printed books and newspapers|
2. Non-Verbal Communication :
Exchange of thoughts, feelings, emotions, etc. through non-verbal means is considered as Non-verbal
communication. The non-verbal means can be body movements or postures, eye contact, facial
expressions, gestures, touch and use of space, etc. Non-verbal communication is a speechless
communication in which expressions are used to communicate or express rather than words.
Non-verbal communication makes our message stronger.
- Using the right gestures and postures helps us to be professional at work.
- Using the right gestures while speaking makes our message more effective.
- Knowing non-verbal communication helps us understand our audience’s reaction and adjust
our behaviour or communication accordingly.
- If verbal messages are blocked by noise or distance, etc., we can use hand movements to exchange our message. Placing a finger on the lips to indicate need for silence and nodding the head up and saying ‘yes’. We communicate non-verbally in many ways. Let us learn about some of these as mentioned in Table
Types of Non-verbal Communication
|Type||What it implies||How to Use Effectively|
|Facial Expression||Our expressions show our feelings: Happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, etc||• Smile when you meet someone • Keep your face relaxed • Match your expressions with what you are saying|
|Posture||Postures are positions of the body. They show our confidence and feelings.||• Keep upper body relaxed and, shoulders straight • Sit straight, rest hands and feet in relaxed position • Keep hands by your sides while standing|
|Gestures or Body Language||Gestures describe movements of parts of the body, especially hands or head, to express an idea or meaning. This includes waving, pointing and using our hands when speaking. For example, raising a hand may mean asking a question. Biting nails show nervousness.||• Avoid pointing at people with your finger • Bend your head a little while talking or listening to show that you are paying attention|
|Touch||We communicate a great deal through our touch, such as shaking hands and patting on the back. For example, a firm handshake shows confidence. Sports coaches give a pat on the back of players to encourage them.||• Shake hands firmly • Avoid other touch gestures during formal communication|
|Space||Space is the physical distance maintained between two people. It is important to maintain a proper distance when speaking with someone.||• Maintain proper space depending on the relationship, which could be formal or informal as the closeness with the person with whom you are talking.|
|Eye Contact||The way we look at someone can communicate things, such as interest or anger. Eye contact is when two people are looking directly into one another’s eyes. It shows that we are paying attention to the person. Looking away can make the other person feel ignored.||• Look at the person who is speaking • Keep a relaxed, pleasant look. • Break the look every few seconds|
|Paralanguage||Paralanguage means how we speak. The tone of our voice, speed and volume can make a difference in the meaning we want to show. Speaking too fast may show happiness, excitement or nervousness. Speaking too slow may show seriousness or sadness.||• Use a proper tone and volume while speaking • Maintain a moderate rate(speed) of talking|
3. Written Communication :
The process of transmitting messages or information in the written form of words is known as written
communication. The medium of this communication in organizations are memos, reports, letters,
circulars, documents, emails, etc.
Elements of Communication
- Sender: The person or entity who initiates the communication by encoding a message and transmitting it to the receiver.
- Message: The information, ideas, or emotions that the sender wishes to convey. This can be in the form of spoken words, written text, body language, gestures, symbols, or any other means of expression.
- Medium: The channel or method used to transmit the message. This can include face-to-face conversations, written documents, phone calls, emails, video conferencing, social media, and more.
- Receiver: The person or group for whom the message is intended. The receiver decodes the message and interprets its meaning.
- Feedback: The response or reaction of the receiver to the message, which allows the sender to gauge the effectiveness of their communication and make necessary adjustments.
General Principles of Communication
Below are the basic principles of communication that are also known as 7C’s of communication, and Following principles of communication make it more effective:
1. Principle of Clarity:
The idea or message to be communicated should be clearly spelt out. It should be worded in such a way that the receiver understands the same thing which the sender wants to convey. There should be
no ambiguity in the message. It should be kept in mind that the words do not speak themselves but the speaker gives them the meaning. A clear message will evoke the same response from the other party. It is also essential that the receiver is conversant with the language, inherent assumptions, and the mechanics of communication.
2. Principle of Attention:
In order to make communication effective, the receiver’s attention should be drawn towards message. People are different in behaviour, attention, emotions etc. so they may respond differently
to the message. Subordinates should act similarly as per the contents of the message. The acts of a superior also draw the attention of subordinates and they may follow what they observe. For
example, if a superior is very punctual in coming to the office then subordinates will also develop such habits. It is said that ‘actions speak louder than words.
3. Principle of Feedback:
The principle of feedback is very important to make the communication effective. There should be a feedback information from the recipient to know whether he has understood the message in the same sense in which the sender has meant it.
4. Principle of Informality:
Formal communication is generally used for transmitting messages and other information. Sometimes formal communication may not achieve the desired results, informal communication may prove effective in such situations. Management should use informal communication for assessing the reaction of employees towards various policies. Senior management may informally convey certain decisions to the employees for getting their feedback. So this principle states that informal communication is as important as formal communication.
5. Principle of Consistency:
This principle states that communication should always be consistent with the policies, plans, programmes and objectives of the organization and not in conflict with them. If the messages and communications are in conflict with the policies and programmes then there will be confusion in the minds of subordinates and they may not implement them properly. Such a situation will be detrimental to the interests of the organization.
6. Principle of Timeliness:
This principle states that communication should be done at proper time so that it helps in implementing plans. Any delay in communication may not serve any purpose rather decisions become of historical importance only.
7. Principle of Adequacy:
The information communicated should be adequate and complete in all respects. Inadequate information may delay action and create confusion. Inadequate information also affects efficiency of the receiver. So adequate information is essential for taking proper decisions and
making action plans.